List of HVDC projects with marine infrastructure

Project
Location
Converter
Stations
Year of
installation
Length
(km)
Rating
(MW)
Voltage
(kV DC)
Electrode
Current
(A DC)
Grounding
Electrodes
Electrode
Material
Polar type /
Operation
Europe:
Skagerrak 1&2
(SK1 &2)
Norway-Denmark
Kristiansand (NO)-
Tjele (DK)
1976,
1977
124
500
250
250
One marine
One land electrode
Graphite /
coke
2 cables - Bipole
later converted
to monopole
Skagerrak 3
(SK3)
Norway-Denmark
Kristiansand (NO) -
Tjele (DK)
1993
124
440
350
1000
One marine
One land electrode
(occasional use)
Graphite /
coke
1 cable /
Monopole
*Skagerrak 4
(SK4)
Norway-Denmark
Kristiansand (NO) -
Tjele (DK)
2014
137
700
500
-
None
-
1 cable
operation with SK3
in bipolar mode
Gotland 1
Sweden
Vikby -
Vestervik
(mainland)
1970 to
Dismantled 1986
96
30
150
914
Two marine
electrodes
Magnetite
1 cable /
Monopole
Gotland 2 and 3.
Sweden
Ygne -
Vastervik
(mainland)
1983,
1987
96
260
150
-
None
-
2 cables /
Bipolar mode
Konti-Skan 1
Sweden-
Denmark
Lindome (SE) -
Vestor Hassing
(DK)
1965 to
(Replaced 2006)
87
250
250
1050
Two marine
electrodes
Graphite /
coke
1 cable /
Monopole
Konti-Skan 1 &2
Sweden-
Denmark
Lindome (SE) -
Vestor Hassing
(DK)
1988
KS-1 upgraded
in 2006
88
380 (KS-1)
300 (KS-2)
±285
1050
Two marine
electrodes
Graphite /
coke
2 cables /
Bipolar mode
Baltic Cable
Sweden-Germany
Kruseberg (SE) -
Herrenwyk (DE)
1994
250
600
450
1364
Two marine
electrodes
Coated titanium,
copper
1 cable /
Monopole
Fennoskan 1
Sweden-Finland
Dannebo (SE) -
Rauma (FI)
1989
200
500
400
1280
Two marine
electrodes
Coated titanium,
copper
1 cable /
Monopole
Fennoskan 2
Sweden-Finland
Dannebo (SE) -
Rauma (FI)
2011
200
800
500
1700
Two marine
electrodes
Coated titanium
wire mesh
2 cables /
Monopole
Kontek
Denmark-Germany
Bjaeverskov (DK) -
Bentwisch (DE)
1995
52
600
400
1500
Two marine
electrodes
Coated titanium,
copper
1 cable /
Monopole
Strebaelt HVDC Link
Denmark
Herslev (Zealand) -
Fraugde (Funen)
2007
56
600
400
-
None?
-
2 cables and
1 metallic return cable
Monopole
Swepol
Sweden-Poland
Stärno (SE) -
Slupsk (PL)
2000
239
600
450
-
None
-
1 cable and
1 metal return cable
Monopole
Estlink
Finland-Estonia
Helsinki (FI) -
Tallinn (EE)
2006
74
350
±150
-
None
-
2 cables
HVDC Light
Bipolar mode
Valhall
Norway
TValhall Platform -
Lista
(mainland)
2011
292
78
150
-
None
-
2 cables
HVDC Light
Bipolar mode
Troll A 1 & 2
Norway
Kollsnes
(mainland) -
Troll A platform
2005
68
88
±60
-
None
-
2 cables
HVDC Light
Bipolar mode
*Troll A 3 & 4
Norway
Kollsnes
(mainland) -
Troll A platform
2015
68
100
±60
-
None
-
2 cables
HVDC Light
Bipolar mode
*DolWin 1
Germany
DolWin Alpha-
Dörpen West
(mainland)
2013
75
800
±320
-
None
-
2 cables
HVDC Light
Bipolar mode
*DolWin 2
Germany
DolWin Beta -
Dörpen West
(mainland)
2015
45
900
±320
-
None
-
2 cables
HVDC Light
Bipolar mode
BorWin 1
Germany
BorWin 1 Alpha-
Diele
(mainland)
2012
125
400
±150
-
None
-
2 cables
HVDC Light
Bipolar mode
BorWin 2
Germany
GlobalTech 1 and
Veja Mate -
Diele
(mainland)
2012
125
800
±300
-
None
-
2 cables
HVDC Plus
Bipolar mode
*Helwin 1
Germany
NordseeOst and Meerwind -
Büttel
(mainland)
2013
85
576
±250
-
None
-
2 cables
HVDC Plus
Bipolar mode
*Helwin 2
Germany
HelWin beta platform -
Büttel
(mainland)
2015
55
690
320
-
None
-
2 cables
HVDC Plus
Bipolar mode
*SylWin 1
Germany
DanTisk -
Büttel
(mainland)
2014
160
864
320
-
None
-
2 cables
HVDC Plus
Bipolar mode
SACOI
Italy-France-Italy
Sardinia (I),
Corsica (F),
Italian mainland
1967,
1986,
1992
119
200
±200
1000
Two marine
One land electrode
Copper,
Titanium,
FeSiCr
2 cables /
Monopole
SAPEI
Italy
Flume Santo
(Sardinia)
Latina
(mainland)
2011
420
(2x500)1000
±500
-
1 shoreline anode
1 sea cathode
Copper cathode
2 cables
Pole 1 (2008)
Pole 2 (2010)
Bipole
Italy-Greece
HVDC Link
Galatina (IT)
Arachthos (GR)
2001
163
500
400
1250
Two marine
electrodes
Titanium,
copper
1 cable /
Monopole
*Italy-ALgeria
HVDC Link
Cagliari Sud (IT) -
El Hadjar (TN)
2020
330
1000
+500
-
Two marine
electrodes?
Titanium
copper?
1 cable
Monopole
*Italy-Tunisia
HVDC Link

Phase I
Partanna (IT) -
El Hawaria (TN)
2016
190
400
+400
-
Two marine
electrodes
Titanium
copper?
1 cable
Monopole
*Italy-Tunisia
HVDC Link

Phase II
Partanna (IT) -
El Hawaria (TN)
2018
190
1000
380
-
None
-
2 cables
Bipolar mode
*Italy-Libya
HVDC Link
Chiaramont Gulfi (IT)
Mellitah (LY)
2017
530
1000
±500
-
None
-
2 cables
Bipolar mode
*Italy-Malta
HVDC Link
Ragusa (IT)
Maghtab (MT)
2013
100
200
220
-
?
-
2 cables
Bipolar mode
*Italy-Albania
HVDC Link
Brindisi (IT)
Babica (AL)
2014
147
500
400
-
Two marine
electrodes?
-
1 cable /
Monopole
*Italy-Croatia
HVDC Link
Candia (IT) -
Konjsko/Tivat (HR)
2017
198
800
380
-
Two marine
electrodes?
-
1 cable /
Monopole
*Italy-Montenegro
HVDC Link
Villanova (IT)
Kotor (ME)
2017
393
1000
(2x500)
500
-
None
-
2 cables
Bipolar mode
*Spain-Algeria
HVDC Link
Litoral de Almeria (ES)
Terga (DZ)
2017
240
2000
±500
-
None
-
2 cables
Bipolar mode
Cross Channel
UK - France
United Kingdom-France
1986
86
250
270
-
None
-
8 cables /
Bipolar mode
East-West Interconnector
United Kingdom-Ireland
Shotton (GB) -
Woodland (IRL)
2012
186
500
±200
-
None
-
2 cables /
HVDC Light
Bipolar mode
*Western HVDC Link
United Kingdom
Hunterston (SCO) -
Connah's Quay (ENG)
2015
420
2200
±600
-
None
-
2 cables
Bipolar mode
NorNed Link
Norway-Netherlands
Feda (NO)
Eemshaven (NL)
2008
580
700
±450
-
None
-
2 cables
Symmetric
Monopole
COMETA
Spain
Santa Ponsa
Mallorca -
Morvedre
(mainland)
2011
240
400
250
-
None
-
2 cables
1 metallic return
Bipole
*NorBalt Link
Sweden to
Lithuania
Nybro (SE)
Klaipeda (LT)
2015
400
700
±300
-
None
-
2 cables /
HVDC Light
Bipolar mode
*Shetland HVDC Link
UK
Weisdale Voe -
Port Gordon
(mainland)
2015
320
600
±300
-
None
-
1-2 cables
HVDC Light or VSC
Bipolar mode
*Åland HVDC Link
Finland
Ytterby (Åland) -
Nådendal
(mainland)
2015
158
100
±80
-
None
-
2 cables /
HVDC Light
Bipolar mode
North Sea Interconnector
UK-Norway
Seaham (GB),
Hylen (NO)
2008
730
1200
500
-
None
-
2 cables /
Bipolar mode
BritNed Link
UK-Netherlands
Isle of Grain (GB)
Maasvlakte (NL)
2011
250
1000
450
-
None
-
2 cables/bundled
Bipolar mode
*VikingCable
Norway-Germany
Project Terminated 2001 !
Feda (NL)
Brunsbuttel (DE)
2005
570
600
500
-
None
-
2 cables and
1 metal return cable
Monopole
*NORGER HVDC Link
Norway-Germany
Tonstad (NO)
Morrien (DE)
2018
570
1400
500
-
None
-
2 cables and
1 metal return cable
Bipolar mode
*NORD.Link
Norway-Germany
Ertsmyra (NO) -
Diele or
Brunsbüttel (DE)
2018
580
1400
500
-
None
-
2 cables and
1 metal return cable
Bipolar mode
*HVDC Norrway-UK
Norway-UK
Hylen (NO) -
Blyth (UK)
2018
711
1400
500
-
None
-
2 cables and
1 metal return cable
Bipolar mode
Moyle Interconnector
United Kingdom
Auchencrosh (SCO)
Ballycronan More (NI)
2001
55
2x250 (500)
±250
-
None
-
2 cables
Monopole
North America:
Vancouver 1, 2
Canada
Vancouver
Vancouver Is.
1968,
1977
33
682
±380
1800
1 marine and
1 land electrode
Graphite,
Mild steel/coke
2 cables
Bipolar mode
*Labrador-Newfoundland
HVDC Link

Canada
Forteau Point (LB) -
Shoal Cove (NF)
2016
32
800
±450
1200
Marine shoreline
electrodes
Silica-cast iron
3 cables
Bipolar mode
*Newfoundland-Nova Scotia
HVDC Link

(Maritime Link) Canada
Cape Ray (NF) -
Point Aconi (NS)
2017
180
500
±250
-
?
-
2 cables
Bipolar mode
Cross Sound
USA
Shoreham (NY)-
New Haven (CT)
2002
40
330
±150
-
None
-
2 cables
HVDC Light
Bipolar mode
Trans Bay HVDC Link
USA
Pittsburg (CA)-
Potrero (CA)
2010
83
400
±200
-
None
-
2 cables
HVDC Plus
Bipolar mode
Neptune RTS HVDC Link
USA
Sayreville (NJ)-
New Cassel (NY)
2007
82
660
500
-
None?
-
1 cable and
1 metallic return
HVDC Plus
Monopole
Asia:
Leyte-Luzon
Ormoc
Naga
1997
21
440
350
1260
Two beach electrodes
Silicon,
iron/coke
1 cable,
1 spare
Bipolar mode
Haenam-Cheju
South Korea
1998
100
300
±180
-
Two marine
electrodes
Graphite
2 cables /
Bipolar mode
Hokkaido-Honshu
Japan
Hokkaido
Honshu
1993
43
600
±250
2000
Two land electrodes
?
2 cables /
Bipolar mode
Kii-channel crossing
Japan
2000
49
2800
±500
-
None
-
2 main cables
2 return cables
Bipolar mode
*Leyte Mindanao
Philippines
Ormoc,
Kirahon
2003
31
500
±350
?
1 marine and
1 beach electrode
Graphite coke
copper
2 cables /
Monopole?
*Dubai-Iran
HVDC Link

UAE-Iran
Jebel Ali (AE)
? (IR)
2018
800
1550
500
-
?
-
2 cables /
Bipole??
*India-Sri Lanka
HVDC Link

India-Sri Lanka
Madurai (IN)
Anauradhapura (LK)
2018
285
1000
500
-
?
-
2 cables /
Bipole??
Australasia:
Basslink
Australia
Victoria -
Tasmania
2006
290
600
400
-
None
-
One cable /
1 metal return
Monopole
Inter Island
New Zealand
Haywards -
Benmore
1965-1991
42
600
±250
1200
One marine.
One land electrode
Mild steel/coke,
Silicon
iron/coke
2 (+1) cables /
Bipolar mode
Inter Island
New Zealand
Haywards -
Benmore
1993
(upgrade)
42
1240
+350
-350
2400
One marine.
One land electrode
Mild steel/coke,
Silicon
iron/coke
Hybrid scheme /
Bipolar mode

* Proposed interconnector

© 2016 EnviroGulf Consulting
Table may be copied for educational and non-profit purposes and quoted as EnviroGulf Consulting. 2013. List of HVDC projects with marine infrastructure. A WWW publication at http://www.envirogulf.com/hvdc.html. EnviroGulf Consulting, Brisbane, Australia.

For amendments or additions to the above table, please contact EnviroGulf Consulting.

 


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